For that fair blessed mother-maid,
Whose flesh redeem’d us, that she-cherubin,
Which unlock’d paradise, and made
One claim for innocence, and disseizèd sin,
Whose womb was a strange heaven, for there
God clothed Himself, and grew,
Our zealous thanks we pour. As her deeds were
Our helps, so are her prayers ; nor can she sue
In vain, who hath such titles unto you.
In Part I of this series we explored a Protestant perspective of the Saints, the benefits of keeping and esteeming their memory, and the Biblical imperative to honor St. Mary the Virgin Mother of Our Lord. In this article, we will be taking a closer look at the many Types and significances of St. Mary revealed in Sacred Scripture. Upon finishing, this articles hopes to have shown to the Protestant opinion the consensus between Biblical Christianity and the Catholic Faith (“Catholic” being defined according to the Vincentian Canon). In doing so, it is my belief that the reader will find himself simultaneously conformed to both the Reformed Conviction and the faith of the Undivided Church, as preserved in the teachings of the Fathers and sought by the Reformers. This, of course, should not be at all surprising as Ad Fontes (“back to the sources”) was the battle cry of the Reformation. Keeping this in mind, let us explore:
The Second Eve
The Christian Gospel is one of re-creation and new birth. St. Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians gives this promise: “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come” (2 Corinthians 5:17). Likewise, when Jesus was speaking to Nicodemus the Pharisee, He says: “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” (John 3:3). This emphasis is essential to the teachings of the Apostles. The Gospels teach that there is a new lineage that one must be made a part of in order to receive the promised salvation. This is reflected in St. Paul’s first Epistle to the Church of Corinth: “For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Corinthians 15:12). Through the sin of our first parents, we have inherited condemnation. So too is it through the engrafting into an heavenly family, as opposed to our natural fleshly one, that we inherit righteousness. St. Paul is here juxtaposing this new lineage with the old. Just as in the first creation there is the first Adam, so too in the second creation, there is a second Adam: The Lord Jesus Christ. It was these parallels between the creation account described within the Law of Moses and the events of the Gospel described in the New Testament that lead the early Fathers to notice particular similarities between the descriptions of Eve and St. Mary. For instance, contrasted with the Annunciation (Luke 1:26), it was through the word of an Angel that our Mother Eve was incited to rebel against God (Genesis 3:1), whilst Mary was encouraged unto obedience. Likewise, the Virginity of St. Mary refers to the infantile and virginal estate of Eve in the Garden. And where Eve showed disloyalty to the Covenant made between Man and God (Genesis 3:6), the new Eve said: “I am the servant of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word” (Luke 1:38). St. Justin Martyr, one of the Church’s first apologists, wrote:
[Jesus] became man by the Virgin, in order that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin. For Eve, who was a virgin and undefiled, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought forth disobedience and death (Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew)
and to quote the Blessed Theophylact:
Because the Lord had once said to Eve, In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children, that sorrow is now removed by the joy which the angel offers to the woman, saying to her, Rejoice, thou full of grace. Since Eve had been cursed, now Mary hears herself blessed. (The Explanation of the Holy Gospel according to Luke)
More significantly, however, is when Jesus echoes the words of our first parent, calling his blessed mother “Woman!”, just as Adam did in the Garden (Genesis 2:23, John 2:4). Adam uttered these words because our mother Eve was “bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh”. So too, then, should these words have been spoken by Christ to St. Mary, as she (being a virgin) was His only true flesh and blood. Just as Eve was Woman due to her relationship with the First Adam, St. Mary is a new kind of Woman because of her relationship with the Second Adam. Dr. Martin Luther, the Reformer, touching upon this sentiment concerning the Virgin Mother, and taking it a step further, said:
No woman is like you. You are more than Eve or Sarah, blessed above all nobility, wisdom, and sanctity. (Sermon, Feast of the Visitation, 1537).
It should, of course, be noted that Luther’s Marian Theology is higher than most within the Protestant tradition, and his words are not to be taken as the essence of even Lutheran theology, but his love for Our Lady is still worth mentioning.
This being said, we may now be prompted to ask what exactly is the significance of these parallels? Simply put, we see clearly the beginning of Christ’s ministry of Reconciliation (2 Corinthians 5:18-20, Ephesians 2:16, Colossians 1:20-21), His re-creation. St. Paul says to Timothy that it was not Adam who was deceived, but rather Eve (1 Timothy 2:14). So then, through her deception, corruption was also brought to Adam who was with her, and he likewise took and ate of the same poisonous fruit. Eve conceived the word of the Serpent to Man. Now, through the grace received by St. Mary, the opposite is true. The undefiled Second Adam has brought obedience to the Second Eve. St. Irenaeus says concerning her election to be the Mother of God: “if the former [Eve] did disobey God, yet the latter was persuaded to be obedient to God, in order that the Virgin Mary might become the patroness of the virgin Eve” (Against Heresies). Unlike our First Mother, St. Mary conceived the Word of God unto mankind.
The second significance is this: the Christian is shown the defeat of the Devil through the elements of his own schemes. Where he used a Virgin and a Tree, Our Lord has redeemed the fall through a Virgin and His life-giving Cross. What Satan has twisted, Christ has made straight. In this way, it truly is a re-creation and renewal, as opposed to something altogether new and foreign. “All authority in Heaven and on Earth” (Matthew 28:18) has been made His, even those things that once rebelled against Him. In His great compassion, He has not obliterated His creation, but rather healed it. The New Eve is the victory of Christ over our rebellion. The truth of the Gospel can be summarized in the words of the Patriarch Joseph:
As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today (Genesis 50:20)
And finally, it is a title owed to Our Lady. It is said that the Man named his wife “Eve” because “she was the mother of all the living” (Genesis 3:20). This promise is fulfilled in St. Mary who is the Mother of the only true living heir of Adam, that is: Christ. For we are dead in our trespasses (Ephesians 2:1), but Christ was sinless and in Him, there is life (Hebrews 4:15, John 1:4). And because she bore Him, our Life, she is due every honor, as Calvin says:
“To this day we cannot enjoy the blessing brought to us in Christ without thinking at the same time of that which God gave as adornment and honor to Mary, in willing her to be the mother of his only-begotten Son.” (A Harmony of Matthew, Mark and Luke)
The Second Ark
The beauty of God’s covenants is that it is always accompanied by the presence of God Himself. This can be seen under the Covenant of Works in the Garden wherein God walked with Adam (Genesis 3:8), so too can it be seen with the Children of Isreal as the Spirit of God dwelt among them in the Tabernacle (Exodus 40:34). Even more so, within the Tabernacle was a holy resting place, the Mercy Seat of God upon the Ark of the Covenant. In the Old Testament, it was this Ark of the Covenant that was the residing place of the Holy Spirit. This Ark was special because it contained the signs and testimonies of the Covenant of God. Therein were the two tablets of the law inscribed by the very Finger of God (Exodus 40:20). Among these were the staff of Aaron the High Priest that budded and bloomed (Numbers 17:10), as well as a jar of Mana that fed the people in the wilderness (Exodus 16:33). And it is from this place of Covenant that God met His people. God said to our teacher Moses:
There I will meet with you, and from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim that are on the ark of the testimony, I will speak with you about all that I will give you in commandment for the people of Israel (Exodus 25:22)
The Ark then served as both the resting place of the Shekinah and the assurance of God’s good-will towards His people. St. Mary takes on this function as the fullness of God comes and dwells within her womb. She becomes the resting place for the Almighty. Br. Max Thurian, a Reformed/Calvinistic monastic gives an interesting parallel in his book Mary: Mother of all Christians to illustrate this point. (It should be noted that the Roman Catholic scholar Fr. Raymond Brown once called this book: “not only the best Protestant evaluation of the Mariological question, but far better than many Catholic treatments”). Br. Thurian compares the Annunciation of the birth of Christ, with that of His cousin St. John the Forerunner. On the one hand, Zachariah the priest (and the father of John the Baptist) enters into a temple that he might bring incense before the Lord (Luke 1:5-25). A liturgical act of worship and priesthood. It is in this place that Zachariah “entered” that he met an angel. Whereas conversely, it is an angel who approaches St. Mary. Br. Thurian juxtaposes the two visits by saying:
it is the angel who ‘comes in unto her’ to speak with her whilst Zachariah ‘entered into the sanctuary’ to find God there.
One contains a disbelieving priest whose duty it was to enter the sanctuary for this purpose only once in his lifetime. The other contains the fullness of Israel’s liturgical worship and priestly promise within the womb of a Virgin whom angels visit with reverence. This is why Elizebeth referred to Mary as “the mother of my Lord”(Luke 1:43) because the fullness of the living God was present. As Calvin says:
Elizabeth called Mary Mother of the Lord, because the unity of the person in the two natures of Christ was such that she could have said that the mortal man engendered in the womb of Mary was at the same time the eternal God
And just as the Ark was the promise of God with us, St. Mary becomes the fulfilling of that ancient prophecy, that He (Christ) would be with us (Isaiah 7:14, Matthew 1:23), as one of us, and that the “seed of the woman” would crush the serpent’s head (Genesis 3:15). And just as the ark contained the sureties of the covenant along with the presence of the Almighty, so too did St. Mary bear Christ, the Christian’s only surety. It was He who gave His very Body and Blood to be a perpetual sacrifice, as well as to be taken and eaten in “remembrance” of that one sacrifice (Luke 22:19, 1 Corinthians 11:26). The Ark then was the place of a spiritual presence and served as a surety of the Covenant in the form of sticks and stones, the womb of the Virgin now contains a greater presence and houses a greater surety: the very flesh of the Son of God. And in one temple, a priest enters and finds not God but an angel, and the other temple made “without hands” (Acts 7:48-49, 17:24), an Angel visits in awe and finds the resting place of God and a truer priesthood. The 17th Century Anglican Divine, Rev. Mark Franck, drives this point home by painting a beautiful image of the visitation of the Magi:
Hither they come to worship, hither they come to pay their offerings and their vows; here is the shrine and altar, the glorious Virgin’s lap, where the Saviour of the world is laid to be adored and worshipped; here stands the star for tapers to give it light; and here the wise men this day become priests – worship and offer, present prayers and praises, for themselves and the whole world besides; all people of the world, high and low, learned and ignorant, represented by them. (Frank’s Sermons Vol. 1)
The God who was once found upon the Mercy Seat is now found upon the lap of a virgin. Where men were once beckoned to a temple, men and angels come to worship at the shrine of a mother’s embrace. This teaches that God truly dwells among His people, not as a foreigner, but as one of them. St. Mary as the New Ark cannot be severed from the profound truth of the Incarnation: Christ took on our nature and dwelt with us, that we might inherit His nature and dwell with Him. Likewise, the words of the Epistle to the Hebrews take on a more significant truth: “Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people” (Hebrews 2:17). Christ became like us in every way (without sin), even unto the point of knowing the love of a Mother, for what else is more human?
Type of the Church
There is a somewhat silly debate within the ecclesiastical community over who is represented in Revelation 12:1. The passage describes a “great sign” in the heavens: A Woman clothed with the sun, the moon under her feet, and atop her head twelve shimmering stars. Those of the Romanist party are quick to point to this frightfully beautiful image as a clear representation of St. Mary, whereas those of a more Protestant disposition will claim that this is an image of the Church. Now, this is speaking generally of course as Rome recognizes several typological significancies in this particular passage. However, the dialogue around this text does show that Christians tend to polarize: She is either Mary, or she is the Church. Rather than pick an opposing side to polarize to, I think it is perhaps better to show that St. Mary serves as a type of the Church in the Gospel narrative.
A significant text drawn upon by the Fathers concerning this principle is found in St. John’s Gospel. He writes: “When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son!” Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!” And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home.” (John 19:26-27). As we have done earlier, once more contrasting the Old Testament narrative with the life of Christ in the Gospels, St. Ephraem writes concerning this verse:
Jesus walked across the sea; he appeared in the cloud; his Church will be redeemed from circumcision; he established John who was chaste in place of Joshua, the son of Nun (God’s leader), and he gave him Mary, his Church, as Moses had given Joshua the people, in order to act even as Moses had said: “in my stead”.
Similarly, St. Ambrose (who should be especially believed by Protestants as it was he who coined the term sola fide) teaches that the giving of St. Mary to St. John at the foot of the cross is to teach the duty of the bishops to preserve the purity of the Church as St. John here is made protector of the virginity of St. Mary. Though these parallels are lovely, it is true that they in and of themselves will not prove convincing to the Protestant consensus. Therefore, let us, remembering the words of these Fathers, look from another perspective.
Though not exactly in line with these patristic illustrations, the Protestant Divine Matthew Henry’s commentary on the same text still has laudable things to say about St. Mary. He says:
Now was fulfilled Simeon’s word, “a sword shall pierce through thy own soul”, Luke ii:35. His torments were her tortures; she was upon the rack, while he was upon the cross; and her heart bled with his wounds; and “the reproach wherewith they reproached” him fell on those that attended him. We may justly admire the power of divine grace in supporting these women, especially the virgin Mary, under this heavy trial. We do not find his mother wringing her hands, or tearing her hair, or rending her clothes, or making an outcry; but with a wonderful composure “standing by the cross”, and her friends with her. Surely she and they were strengthened by a divine power to this degree of patience; and surely the virgin Mary had a fuller expectation of his resurection than the rest had, which supported her thus. (Commentary on the whole Bible)
As can be seen, Henry does not explicitly make the connection between St. Mary and the Church, but he does point out several important qualities of the Virgin, some of which are either apostolic exhortations for, or innate attributes of the Church. For example, Henry is quick to described how the Bible teaches of the shared suffering of St. Mary with Christ at the crucifixion (though he rightly dismisses the Romanist notion of her being “co-mediatrix”). This suffering of course first being prophesied by Simeon the God Reciever. He then, as all should when discussing St. Mary, begins to discuss the prevalence of God’s Grace in her life. Before likewise discussing this grace, let us have quick a word on this aforementioned shared suffering. Sts Peter and Paul teach: “But rejoice insofar as you share Christ’s sufferings, that you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed” (1 Peter 4:13) and “and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him” (Romans 8:17). These exhortations are not just on virtuous living, but rather are an innate part of the Gospel. Just as we are buried with Christ in Baptism (Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12) that we might be resurrected with Him, so too it would seem that we suffer with Him that we might be glorified with Him. These texts seem to apply to the Church Universal and not simply the individual Christian, which is why I have included it here. It is, in my estimation, that this common suffering is an image of the Church’s shared suffering with Christ. -I leave it to the reader to decide.
Now the presence of Grace in St. Mary’s life is a more compelling argument. We are told in St. Luke’s Gospel at the Annunciation that the Virgin is full of grace. As shown above, Henry can’t help but take note of the effects of this same grace as St. Mary witnesses the piercing of her Son upon the cross with hopeful expectation of His rising from the dead. Mary is full of grace as a type of the Church. She reminds the Christian that the Church is full of Christ’s grace and the Church is the place wherein the Grace of God is to be found. The Church is made so by Grace alone just as St. Mary is all that she is due to grace alone. In fact, the Church is typically (according to the Protestant tradition) defined by its relationship to Divine Grace. To quote the 39 Articles of the Church of England: “THE visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in the which the pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly ministered according to Christ’s ordinance…” (Article XIX). Both these, the Word of God and the Sacraments, are what many have come to call the ordinary means of grace. But what specifically does this have to do with St. Mary? Is this simply a fixation on a single greeting from an Angel? No, dear reader, it is rather a fixation on Christ. For St. Mary bore Him, the Word of God, and she contained Him, the true Sacrament. It was from His side that the water and the blood flowed, and it is His body that we consume. He is the grace of God. The Church, in a clearer sense, then, is where Christ resides; where salvation resides. And if this were not enough, Mary, of all Christ’s Disciples, contains the entirety of the Gospel narrative. She was present from the birth of Our Lord (this should require no proof on my account as to say otherwise would be absurd) to the ascension (Acts 1:6-14). She saw both His humiliation upon the cross and His rising in glory to the right hand of the Father. As deserving of honor as all of the Apostles may be, none are as ever-present as St. Mary within the life of Christ, and none save she was present from birth, to death, to resurrection and ascension. So this grace is three-fold: St. Mary is first said to be “full of grace”, she secondly contained the means of said grace, and thirdly, as should be especially precious to the Protestant, her life contains the Gospel in its entirety.
Finally, a word on her Virginity. I have saved this for the final point as it is often (though it should not be) disputed among Protestant circles. It is a long-held tradition within the Church that St. Mary retained her virginity throughout the entirety of her earthly life. This belief is found well throughout the writings of the Fathers and is affirmed by Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli alike. For the sake of brevity, I will only include one quote from one the most Protestant (and in fact, Puritan) of the Anglican Divines and the first Bishop of Liverpool, J.C. Ryle. He says in defense of the Semper Virgo:
We should mark that when Jesus died Joseph was probably dead, and that Mary had no other children beside our Lord. It is absurd to suppose that our Lord would have commended Mary to John, if she had had a husband or son to support her. The theory of some few writers, that Mary had other children by Joseph after Jesus was born, is very untenable, and grossly improbable. (Commentary on St. John’s Gospel)
Now, this virginity is significant as a sign of the Church in light of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Corinthians. He says: “For I feel a divine jealousy for you, since I betrothed you to one husband, to present you as a pure virgin to Christ” (2 Corinthians 11:2). Along with these words are numerous other biblical passages comparing the people of God to a virgin (Song of Solomon 1:2, Isaiah 62:4-5, Revelation 14:4, Revelation 19:7-8). Concerning this beautiful and unique expression of virginity and marital unity, as is found within the Church, the French (Reformed) Divine Charles Drelincourt once said: “O Lord, whose will it was to be born of a virgin, but of a virgin betrothed, to honour thy one same act with BOTH virginity and marriage, and to obtain for thy mother both a support and a witness and innocence….” (Prayer and Meditation on the Incarnation). Now, the Semper Virgo, in my opinion, makes this imagery more compelling but is not strictly necessary. One may still say that the virginal conception of Our Lord alone still points to the purity of the Church as we see the union of this precious Virgin with Christ as He dwelt within her womb. -Again, I leave it to the reader to decide.
So then the Church is like St. Mary in that it suffers along with Christ, it is the resting place of His Grace, or rather, where He Himself dwells, and the Church, like the lovely Virgin, is pure, and in this purity, unified with Our Lord. To quote Br. Max once more:
As far as [Mary] is concerned, according to the Gospel, she is the expression of grace in its fullness and of God’s infallible and predestined choice which causes His earthly mother to become the symbol of the Church’s motherhood. … Mary, full of grace, Daughter of Zion, the Mother of God Incarnate, the symbol of Mother Church is holy because in her the Gospel sees the living sign of a unique and pre-destined choice of the Lord, the response of faith from a perfectly human creature, but one who was also totally obedient.
To once more learn from the beloved bishop, J.C. Ryle, in his commentary on St. Luke’s Gospel, he gives a fantastic observation concerning the hope that St. Mary represents to those of us who are in Christ. Upon first describing the honors owed to her as taught in the Gospel text, then quickly describing Romanist abuses concerning Our Lady that cannot be found in Holy Scripture, Ryle goes on to say: “There is a relationship to Christ within reach of us all – far nearer than that of flesh and blood – a relationship which belongs to all who repent and believe”. Bishop Ryle then references St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 12:46-50) wherein Christ’s family is waiting for him outside of a crowded house whilst he teaches. It is told Him “Your mother and brothers are standing outside, wanting to speak to you.”, to which He responds: “Who is my mother, and who are my brothers?” Pointing to his disciples, he said, “Here are my mother and my brothers. For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother and sister and mother”. Now many of those among the Protestants are quick to point to this passage as if it were to defame the Mother of Our Lord. Rather, Bishop Ryle sees it as a promise of hope for the Christian. If all that has been said of St. Mary in this writing up until this point is true (of which I am certain it is), then it is silly to think that Scripture would go out of its way to tarnish such a wholesome reputation. Rather, this text (or so says Ryle) is to teach that the intimacy of the Holy Family, the privileges given to St. Mary due to this intimacy, are something to be sought after by the Christian and attained by keeping the will of the Father. Christ hath also said that those who Love Him keep His commandments (John 14:21). Therefore, to keep His law is to be like those who have loved Him, and who has loved Him more than His beloved Mother? All those who repent and believe this Holy Gospel carry with them the presence of Christ, as did His Mother at the first. Elsewhere in St. Luke’s Gospel (11:27-28) a woman called out to Christ and said: “Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts at which you nursed!” and He replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and keep it!”. It should, of course, be noted that St. Mary did obey the Word of the Lord, as it was her who said: “Let it be done to me according to your word” (Luke 1:38). But this passage teaches that the blessedness bestowed on this precious woman is within the grasp of us who keep God’s Word. This is not to say that St. Mary is not unique among the Christian family, but rather she is a shining example above other examples, and a sign to which points us to her Beloved Son. To further this point, later in his commentary on the Gospel of St. John, Ryle once more makes the connection between Christ’s relationship with His mother as an encouragement for all Christians, saying: “The heart that even on the cross felt for Mary, is a heart that never changes. Jesus never forgets any that love Him, and even in their worst estate remembers their need”.
Therefore, the Christian life is a Marian life. One of intimacy with Christ, one of obedience, and one that unashamedly bears Him to the World. She can be seen as the first of the Christians, the Proto-Christian as it were. She the first to have Christ reside within Her, she the first to know of His Gospel. And she is the first to do what every and all Christian ought to do, what the Church ought to do, by saying “do everything that He commands of you” (John 2:5). Br. Thurian teaches concerning this phrase:
Mary, here, also participates in the spiritual motherhood of the Church which gives birth to the disciples of Christ in the light of faith. Mary’s faith, which is total abandon to the will and word of Christ (‘Whatsoever he says’), communicates itself to the servants (* . . . do it’), and precedes and prepares for the glory of the Messiah which will awaken the faith of the disciples (‘ . . . and the disciples believed in him’). Mary here fulfills the ministry of communicating the faith, she gives birth to the faith of others, and shares in the motherhood of the Church.
We should all strive to be like the Mother of Our Lord, who by obedience awakened the faith of others. This is the ministry of the Church, the Ministry of reconciliation. A ministry of Good works which causes those who witness them, to praise our Father in Heaven (Matthew 5:16).
This final treatment will be the shortest as it seems to me to be more logical than it is necessarily typological. The logic is such: The Church is the Body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12:27), St. Mary is the mother of Christ, ergo St. Mary is the Mother of the Church, and therefore us all. Now, this may sound particularly daunting to many, but my hope is to remedy this discomfort with two points. It should be common for the reader to already refer to the Church as “Mother”. St. Cyprian writes:
He can no longer have God for his Father, who has not the Church for his mother (Treatise I, On the Unity of the Church)
And Calvin writes:
I shall start, then, with the church, into whose bosom God is pleased to gather his sons, not only that they may be nourished by her help and ministry as long as they are infants and children, but also that they may be guided by her motherly care until they mature and at last reach the goal of faith…so that, for those to whom he is Father the church may also be Mother. And this was so not only under the law but also after Christ’s coming, as Paul testifies when he teaches that we are the children of the new and heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26). (Inst. 4.1.1).
So then, the Church is our Mother. If what I have said is at all convincing, it should not be strange to recognize St. Mary as a symbol of Mother Church, in which case, there should be no qualms with bestowing on her the title that role, that is, Mother.
Secondly, It is already common to refer to those who have gone before us, namely the Patriarchs, as “Father”. If there is no objection to saying “Our Father Abraham”, then there should be little objection to saying “Our Mother Mary”. Therefore, be at rest dear Christian. There is no heavenly usurpation in referring to the Blessed Virgin as our Mother, no more than when a spouse refers to the parent of the other as “Mother” or “Father”.
If truth be told, this has not even begone to scratch the surface of St. Mary’s profound role in the New Testament or Church Tradition. It is my hope, however, that my inadequate writing allowed some to glimpse this unique and laudable figure in a new light. And perhaps, by God’s grace, several of the stigmas surrounding Our Lady will have been removed from the hearts and minds of those of us who have found ourselves influenced by those who could be rightly called Hyper-Protestants. Even these lovely things that I have written about Our Lady pale in comparison to the many praises that our most prestigious Divines have written about her over the years. I would encourage all to delve into the matter more deeply, I promise you will be shocked by the contents of history. In the article to come, it is my hope to identify several of the negative consequences to be found within contemporary Christian culture due to the all too common disdain for St. Mary. Until then, I have listed a couple of resources below that will prove more than edifying for the curious reader.
Soli Deo Gloria